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| Food, Nutrition and Cancer | Tobacco and Cancer | Causes of Cancer |
Nutrition and Cancer
AD, Young-He-Yan thought that poor nutrition was a cause of the condition
we would now know as cancer of the esophagus.
1396 AD Hakim Gorgani observed that the main cause of esophageal cancer
in the Turkman Sahara of North eastern Iran (where the incidence rate of
this disease is the highest in the world) is malnutrition and poor food
1914, Peyton Raus observed that the restriction of food comsunption delayed
the development of tumor metastases in mice.
the 1920s and 1930s, the accumulation of vital statistics by insurance companies
showed an association between obesity and mortality from cancer in different
the 1930s, exploration of the role of diet in human cancers began and even
at that stage, evidence emerged that high intake of plant foods reduces
the risk of cancer.
the 1940s, the protective effects of under-feeding on tumor formation in
experimental animals were recognized.
the 1980s, the possible role of diet and nutrition in the etiology of several
cancer sites in humans were suggested.
Tobacco is the
cause of about half of all male cancer deaths in middle age and one-third
in old age in North America.
is also the cause of one-third of all deaths among women in middle age in
cancer due to tobacco kills more women in North America each year than
the United States has only 5% of the world's female population, it contributed
50% of the world's female mortality due to smoking.
risk of chewing tobacco in the development of oral cancer is 25 and the
attributable risk is 90%
kills three million people each year
|| Developing Countries
|| Developed Countries
Finding the cause of cancer is extremely difficult,
because often cancer develops very slowly over many years. It may be 20-30
years after a number of people are exposed to a cancer-causing agent (carcinogen)
before there is a significant increase in cancer among them.
in natural foodstuffs: There are some food which are powerful direct-acting
carcinogens such as BRACKEN FERN. This vegetable has been related to cancer
produced by cooking: BENZO (a) PYRENE and other POLYCYCLIC HYDROCARBONS
can be generated by pyrolysis when meat and fish are broiled or smoked or
when any food is fried in fat that is used repeatedly.
produced in stored foods by microorganisms: Carcinogens could be
produced in stored foods by the action of microorganisms. AFLATOXIN, a product
of the fungus ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS that commonly contaminates peanuts and
other staple carbohydrate foods stored in hot and humid climates, is a major
factor in the development of liver cancer in certain tropical countries.
of carcinogens in the body: The formation of N-nitroso compound,
the most powerful carcinogens in the body is an example of the formation
of carcinogens in the body.
activation, or deactivation of carcinogens:
Fiber alters the concentration, or duration of contact of carcinogens with
Alcohol alters the transport of
carcinogens in stem cells.
The role of overnutrition is very important in the etiology of cancer, even
though the relevant mechanism remains obscure.
are different tables on nutritional factors that affect the risk of developing
one or many cancers.
tea, and drinks
and smoked foods
and related factors
poultry, fish and eggs
of cooking foods
and diary products
salting and refrigeration